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This is the Glossary for Totem’s course Phishing Attacks

Bot army: A large group of devices connected to the internet that are all running bots (= computer programs that work automatically), that can be used to send spam or attack other computers and cause them to stop working correctly.

Device: A machine or tool used for a specific task, like a computer or a mobile phone.

Domain Name Server (DNS): A a protocol that translates the unique text-based website name that humans use (e.g., into the website number (IP address) that computers recognize.

Executable file: A file that is specially marked to tell the operating system that it’s okay to run this file as a program (".exe" on Windows, ".dmg" on MacOS). Usually shortened to “executable”.

Identity fraud: Identity fraud is the use by one person of another person's personal information, without authorization, to commit a crime or to deceive or defraud that other person or a third person.

Impersonate: To pretend to be (another person), especially fraudulently.

Malware: A malicious computer software that interferes with normal computer functions or sends personal data about the user to unauthorized parties over the Internet.

Ransomware:  A malware that requires the victim to pay a ransom to retrieve access to files encrypted by the malware.

Scam: A fraudulent business scheme; a swindle.

Spam: Unwanted electronic messages.

Spear phishing: Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing. In contrast to bulk phishing, spear phishing attackers often gather and use personal information about their target to increase their probability of success.

Spoofing: A fraudulent or malicious practice in which communication is sent from an unknown source disguised as a source known to the receiver.

Spyware: A software that secretly gathers information about a person or organization and that is designed to take partial or full control of a computer's operation without the knowledge of its user.

Virus: A computer virus is a type of malicious software program that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be "infected" with a computer virus.

Whaling: A specific form of phishing that's targeted at high-profile business executives, managers, and the like.