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This is the Glossary for Totem’s course How to bypass Internet censorship

Circumvention: Various methods and tools to bypass internet censorship.

Computer: A device, usually electronic, that processes data according to a set of instructions. The digital computer stores data in discrete units and performs arithmetical and logical operations at very high speed.

Data: Individual facts, statistics or items of information. Everything you send across the internet is data.

Data Cap (or bandwidth cap): A service provider-imposed limitation on the amount of data transferred by a user at a specified level of throughput over a given time period, for a specified fee.

Device: A machine or tool used for a specific task, like a computer or a mobile phone.

Decryption: The act of applying a key to convert an encrypted text back to plain text.

Encryption: The act of taking plain text and a key and converting it into an encoded text.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): A protocol that allows communication between different systems. Often used to transfer data from a server to a browser in order to view webpages.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): A protocol that uses a SSL-certificate to create a secure encrypted connection between the server and the browser.

Information Security: A process of maintaining confidentiality, ensuring integrity and assuring the availability of data you want to protect.

Internet: A global system of interconnected computer networks that use protocols to link devices, enabling them to receive or transmit information.

Internet Exchange Point (IXP): The physical infrastructure through which an Internet service providers (ISPs) exchange Internet traffic between their networks. The exchange between two participants on an IXP is facilitated by a gateway protocol routing configurations between them.

Internet Service Provider (ISP): A company that provides internet access.

Internet Protocol (IP): The method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another over the internet. Each computer (known as a node) on the internet has at least one IP address that is unique and differs from all other computers’ IP addresses on the internet.

Internet Protocol address (IP address): A numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication (like

Mail server: A provider of email hosting that implements email servers to send, receive, accept, and store email for other organisations or end users, on their behalf.

Malware: A harmful computer program that has been designed for spying or stealing information or data.

Network: A collection of nodes capable of receiving and transmitting information.

On-path Attack: Formerly known as "Man-In-The-Middle-Attack". Action where a third party can collect information as well as impersonate two other agents that are communicating, exchanging information.

Open Source: A method of releasing a computer program and the code in a way that is publicly available to everyone.

Permissions: Authorisations that govern what your app is allowed to do and access on your device (for example your contacts, gallery, camera, or folders).

Proxy: A computer system or an application which acts as an intermediary to get access to computer network from other server(s).

Security Audit: A computer security audit is a manual or systematic measurable technical assessment of a system or application.

Server: A computer that makes services available to workstations on a network, such as hosting websites, and giving access to data files, programs, and peripheral devices.

Software: Anything that is not hardware but is used with hardware. Programs that can be used with a particular computer system.

Transport Layer Security (TLS): A cryptographic protocol that provides communications security over a computer network to establish an encrypted link between a server and a browser. This link ensures that all data passed between the server and browser remains private and integral.

Tunnel: In this course we use the word “tunnel” as a metaphor to explain how a circumvention tool can bypass censorship. However, it is important to keep in mind that not all circumvention tools use tunnellingthe technical “tunnel” as a method of bypassing censorship.

User: A person who uses a computer.

Virtual Private Network (VPN): A private network across a public network, which enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.

Wifi: The name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections.